Tannehill had a season-high rating of 123.2. He went 22 for 28 for 220 yards and two scores with no interceptions, and he ran eight times for 52 yards.
Reggie Bush ran for 104 yards, including a 53-yarder to set up a field goal. Dan Carpenter kicked field goals of 53, 30 and 31 yards.
Miami (6-8) won for only the second time in the past seven games. The Jaguars (2-12) only helped their chances of getting the No. 1 draft pick next April.
Jacksonville, ranked next to last in the NFL in five major offensive categories, had the ball for just 14 minutes in the final three periods. The Dolphins' first four possessions of the second half resulted in clock-eating drives of 76, 60, 64 and 85 yards.
With the score tied, an illegal-substitution penalty cost Jacksonville a touchdown in the second quarter. Henne threw a 20-yard scoring pass to Justin Blackmon, but the play was negated because Guy Whimper had entered the game as a third tackle as he had done five times earlier without reporting as an eligible receiver.
Instead of the score, the Jaguars retreated to their 25 and eventually lost possession when Henne was stopped for no gain on a fourth-and-1 sneak.
Jacksonville had another touchdown taken off the board in the final two minutes. Cecil Shorts' 4-yard scoring reception was instead ruled incomplete when a replay review determined he failed to come down in bounds.
On the next play, Henne threw incomplete on fourth down.
The stadium was only half full, a reflection of the matchup between two teams out of the playoff race, and only a few thousand fans remained to applaud the home team as the clock ran out.
The Dolphins' first touchdown came when they converted three third downs in a 14-play, 89-yard drive that ended with Tannehill's 4-yard scoring pass to fullback Jorvorski Lane. Tannehill went 6 for 6 on the drive.
Leading 10-3, the Dolphins tried a fake field goal at the Jacksonville 5, but holder Brandon Fields' pass fell incomplete. Miami quickly forced a punt, and Bush's long run set up another field-goal situation. This time, Carpenter kicked a 30-yarder.
Karlos Dansby stopped Henne on fourth down at the Miami 11, and Jason Trusnik tackled Montell Owens for no gain on fourth and 1 at the 15 early in the fourth quarter.
The Dolphins sewed up the victory with an 85-yard drive that took nine minutes of the fourth quarter and ended with Tannehill's 2-yard touchdown pass to Anthony Fasano.
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Jacksonville 3, Miami 24
Jacksonville 3 0 0 0 3
Miami 3 7 6 8 24
Jac • FG Scobee 37, 10:03.
Mia • FG Carpenter 53, 6:26.
Mia • Lane 4 pass from Tannehill (Carpenter kick), 1:56.
Mia • FG Carpenter 30, 5:35.
Mia • FG Carpenter 31, 1:01.
Mia • Fasano 2 pass from Tannehill (Fasano pass from Tannehill), 3:12.
Attendance • 53,667.
First downs 13 26
Total Net Yards 299 389
Rushes-yards 21-86 36-180
Passing 213 209
Punt Returns 1-9 0-0
Kickoff Returns 1-24 2-38
Interceptions Ret. 0-0 0-0
Comp-Att-Int 18-34-0 22-29-0
Sacked-Yards Lost 2-8 1-11
Punts 5-47.4 1-63.0
Fumbles-Lost 2-0 1-1
Penalties-yards 10-88 5-41
Time of Possession 24:22 35:38
Rushing • Jacksonville, Owens 11-47, Murphy 6-20, Henne 3-16, Jones 1-3. Miami, Bush 21-104, Tannehill 8-52, L.Miller 6-18, Thomas 1-6.
Passing • Jacksonville, Henne 18-34-0-221. Miami, Tannehill 22-28-0-220, Fields 0-1-0-0.
Receiving • Jacksonville, Shorts 6-101, Blackmon 6-93, Lewis 3-8, Shipley 2-13, Owens 1-6. Miami, Fasano 6-56, Hartline 5-77, Matthews 3-23, Mar.Moore 2-33, Clay 2-8, Lane 2-6, Thigpen 1-15, L.Miller 1-2.
Missed Field Goals • None.