Busch, who also won both races at Fontana last month, led 171 of 334 laps for his 26th career Cup victory.
"To be in Victory Lane in Texas, there's nothing better," Busch said. "If it wasn't for my pit crew, which is the most awesome group ever. ... Man, those guys were just awesome. They put together a heck of a stop to give us that lead. These cars are amazing to drive. They're fast. They're fun."
Truex was trying to win for the first time since June 2007, but his winless streak reached 210 races when he finished a half-second behind Busch. Truex came into the race 25th in points with no laps led this season, but had his Michael Waltrip Racing Toyota in front for 142 laps at Texas.
"Debris huh????" Truex tweeted about the caution that cost him the lead.
"The race was over in the pits," Truex said.
Busch has 111 career victories in NASCAR's three top series 26 in Sprint Cup, 55 in Nationwide and 30 in Camping World Truck.
His weekend sweep in California last month was overshadowed by the last-lap crash in the Cup race between former teammates Denny Hamlin and Joey Logano that left Hamlin with a fractured vertebra in his lower back.
Logano barely made the start of the race after prerace inspections turned up problems. He started at the back of the field, but worked up to a fifth-place finish. Jimmie Johnson maintained his series points lead by finishing sixth, ahead of Aric Almirola.
NASCAR confiscated the original rear-end housing parts from Logano's No. 22 Ford and the No. 2 of Penkse Racing teammate Brad Keselowski, the defending Sprint Cup champion. NASCAR officials said the situation will be evaluated further next week, when decisions about any penalties could be made.
Logano gave up his starting spot of 18th after being late to the starting grid while having to get additional inspections. Keselowski got on pit road in time and started 16th, and finished ninth.
In keeping with a long tradition for the winner at Texas, Busch received a cowboy hat and got to fire trophy six-shooters loaded with blanks in Victory Lane.
The title sponsor of the race was the National Rifle Association, which came at a time when the U.S. Senate weighs legislation intended to reduce gun violence in the wake of the December shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. A senator from Connecticut requested that the Fox network not broadcast the race.
Carl Edwards, a three-time winner at Texas who had his seatbelt come loose during the race, finished third ahead of Roush Fenway teammate Greg Biffle.
Brian Vickers, filling in for Hamlin in the No. 11 Gibbs car, finished eighth. Hamlin was at the track this weekend and said he feel good, though he will miss at least another race, maybe more.
Driver Pts Beh
1. J. Johnson 269
2. B. Keselowski 260 -9
3. Ky. Busch 251 -18
4. G. Biffle 239 -30
T5. C. Edwards 234 -35
T5. D. Earnhardt 234 -35
7. K. Kahne 232 -37
8. C. Bowyer 208 -61
9. J. Logano 207 -62
10. P. Menard 206 -63
11. M. Kenseth 204 -65
12. K. Harvick 192 -77