Earthquakes general manager John Doyle says Goodson should be a good addition for the team, calling him a good leader with excellent character.
The 31-year-old Goodson will first report to the national team's camp for next month's CONCACAF Gold Cup before joining San Jose following the conclusion of the tournament.
Goodson joins the Earthquakes after three-year stints with IK Start of Norway and Brondby of Denmark. He was also a member of the United States' 2010 World Cup squad. Goodson has amassed 36 caps for the national team.