"After every census and reapportionment, the blue districts get bluer and the red districts get redder," said former Rep. Steve LaTourette, R-Ohio, using the colorful terms for liberal and conservative districts. "It's against their electoral interests," he said, for lawmakers from such districts to move toward the center rather than feed "red meat" to their most ideological constituents.
Many House Republicans insist that President Barack Obama curtail all or part of his landmark health care law, which they call "Obamacare." But Democrats, who control the Senate, say it's preposterous to yield ground on a major accomplishment that survived a Supreme Court challenge and Obama's 2012 re-election.
Both sides appear unwilling to budge, thanks to lawmakers' ideological beliefs and the strong support they generally receive from voters back home.
"It might be that both sides are backed into a corner so far that it's hard to get out of," said Rep. Mike Simpson. R-Idaho. "Obama is not going to give up on Obamacare, for either a delay or defunding it," he said. "And I don't see how we can give up on trying."
Constituents calling and emailing his office, Simpson said, generally oppose both the shutdown and the Obama health law. He said the government shutdown could last at least two weeks, which would overlap with the more consequential question of whether to raise the U.S. debt limit to avoid defaulting on obligations.
Like many Republicans, Simpson said the GOP will have more political leverage on the debt ceiling because the stakes will be so high. The White House calls that an irresponsible and unacceptable strategy, and it vows not to negotiate on something that could rock financial markets worldwide and trigger a new recession.
Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., fully endorsed that view Thursday. He said no conditions can be attached to a "clean" extension of government funding and a hike in the nation's borrowing capacity. If that forces House Speaker John Boehner, R-Ohio, to rely on Democratic votes and possibly lose his speakership to angry conservatives, Reid told reporters, then so be it.
Interviews with House Republicans and Democrats expose the ideological chasm that separates them, and the self-assurance of politicians strongly favored to win next year's election, regardless of the shutdown outcome. One side's reasonableness is the other side's absurdity.
"Something that is very reasonable is for us to give them a one-year CR in exchange for a one-year delay" in the entire health law's implementation, said Rep. Raul Labrador, R-Idaho. A "CR" is a continuing resolution, which would extend government funding at current levels.
Labrador won his last election with 63 percent of the vote, and Obama lost Idaho to Mitt Romney by a 2-to-1 margin.
Democrats scoff at Labrador's suggestion.
"The only way this ends is when the speaker allows the full House to work its will," said Rep. Chris Van Hollen, D-Md., who took 63 percent of the vote in his last election. "We could pass a clean CR, to keep the government funded, today," he said, if Boehner would allow all House members to vote.
Thus far, Democrats have opposed Boehner almost unanimously, saying he has made no meaningful concessions. That leaves Boehner at the mercy of his 232-member GOP caucus, where conservative hardliners prevent him from passing any measure they oppose.
In past decades, congressional leaders often crafted bipartisan solutions in the political center to resolve tough issues. Then, however, more House members came from politically competitive districts. Taking a more centrist, cooperative stand often helped these lawmakers win re-election.
Now, far more House members come from firmly conservative or firmly liberal districts. Their only election vulnerability is in their party's primaries, when ideological purists might accuse them of being unacceptably cooperative with the other side.
The previous two government shutdowns, in the mid-1990s, ended fairly quickly. Many House members then faced greater threats in a general election than in a primary, because their districts were politically balanced. In 1995, for instance, 79 House Republicans represented districts carried by Democrat Bill Clinton in the previous presidential election, according to a National Journal analysis.
Today, only 17 House Republicans come from districts that Obama won.
The dramatic decline of House GOP moderates who once came to Congress in big numbers from the Northeast and Midwest became clear this week when a supposed moderate insurrection drew only two votes against a Boehner-backed budget measure.
In a similar vein, moderate-to-conservative House Democrats, especially from the South, have all but vanished.
The result is a House full of lawmakers confident in the rightness of their views, and in the likelihood of their re-election next year. So no matter how many times the Democratic-controlled Senate rejects efforts to curtail "Obamacare," Republicans keep trying.
"We want them to admit there are problems with Obamacare," said GOP Rep. James Lankford of Oklahoma, where Obama won 33 percent of the vote last year. As for how long the shutdown might last, he said: "I have no idea."
Other developments Thursday
Next crisis looms • President Barack Obama pointedly blamed House Speaker John Boehner for keeping federal agencies closed, while the bitter budget dispute moved closer to a more critical showdown over the nation's line of credit. Obama canceled a trip to Asia as the Treasury warned of calamitous results if Congress fails to raise the debt limit.
Back pay • House Republicans could vote as early as Friday on legislation backed by some of the chamber's top Democrats to give furloughed federal workers their missed pay when the government reopens.
Utah National Guard • Colorado will use state funds to pay the next wave of National Guard soldiers rebuilding a key highway damaged by flooding because of the government shutdown. About 120 Utah National Guard soldiers are set to arrive Friday and start work Saturday on U.S. Highway 36 from Lyons to Estes Park, relieving a Colorado National Guard crew.
No investigators • The National Transportation Safety Board wasn't sending investigators to Tennessee to probe a deadly church bus crash that killed eight people and sent 14 others to the hospital.
No jobs report • The Labor Department said it wouldn't release the highly anticipated September jobs report on Friday because the government remains shuttered.
Mars mission cleared • Planetary scientists were relieved after NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars was cleared for liftoff. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission, scheduled for launch between Nov. 18 and Dec. 7, had been put on hold after the shutdown stopped most NASA activities. That hold raised fears that the spacecraft would miss its narrow launch window and be grounded for years.
'Hypocrisy' • Senate chaplain Barry Black opened the session with an unusually pointed prayer: "Deliver us from the hypocrisy of attempting to sound reasonable while being unreasonable. Remove the burdens of those who are the collateral damage of this government shutdown."
Grand Canyon • Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer wants the Grand Canyon, the state's signature national park, reopened and has offered to pay for it with state money, but her proposal was rejected by a park official who said such a plan isn't an option during the shutdown.
West Point • Some classes at West Point are being combined or canceled and military faculty members are being forced to fill in for furloughed civilian instructors, academy officials said.
Smuggling prosecution • The top federal prosecutor in San Diego said prosecutions of immigrant and drug smuggling offenses will be fully restored three days after they were curtailed.
Sources • The Associated Press,