More than 5,000 protesters chanted slogans such as "Free Political Prisoners" and carried a big poster that read "End Putinism, free hostages!" The march, which was sanctioned by authorities, went on peacefully amid a heavy police presence.
The number of demonstrators was significantly lower than the organizers' expectations of 20,000. The relatively low attendance reflected the sense of weariness among the opposition movement, which has been losing its energy after a series of major anti-Putin demonstrations in Moscow in the winter of 2011-12, which attracted 100,000 or more.
Alexei Navalny, a charismatic 37-year old anti-corruption lawyer who has emerged as the most prominent opposition leader, told reporters Sunday that the rally was needed to raise pressure for the release of those arrested.
He warned opposition supporters that they shouldn't expect a quick victory.
"The truth is that we need to get ready for a long and more difficult struggle," he said.
In July, Navalny was convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to five years in prison on charges widely seen as political, but he was released the next day in what some saw as a government attempt to make the Moscow mayoral race, in which he took part, look more competitive.
Navalny won 27 percent of September's vote, finishing a strong second behind the Kremlin-backed incumbent. The surprisingly strong performance cemented his positions as the No.1 Russian opposition politician.
Earlier this month, a court replaced a prison term for Navalny with a suspended sentence.