"Becoming a part of the Smithsonian is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to lead an institution that is at the heart of the country's cultural, artistic, historical and scientific life," Skorton said in a statement. "I am eager to work with the leaders of Washington's art, science and cultural centers to emphasize the critical importance of these disciplines."
Skorton, whose research focus is congenital heart disease, cardiac imaging and image processing, has led Cornell since 2006. Skorton previously served as president of the University of Iowa for three years, where he was a faculty member for 26 years.
At the Smithsonian, Skorton will be paid a salary of $795,000 far more than the current secretary. The board set the salary based on comparisons with public universities, nonprofits, museums and cultural organizations, said Smithsonian spokeswoman Linda St. Thomas. Clough's current salary is $542,000.
The Smithsonian includes several of the world's most popular museums that draw millions of visitors each year, including the National Air and Space Museum, the National Museum of Natural History and the National Museum of American History. All offer free admission. The complex also is building a new National Museum of African American History and Culture, which is slated to open in late 2015 or early 2016.
John McCarter Jr., the new chairman of the Smithsonian board and former director of The Field Museum in Chicago, led the search for a secretary. In January, he said the board initially considered between 40 and 50 candidates and brought several in for face-to-face interviews.
The complexity of the position is "extraordinary," McCarter said, in terms of managing an institution that must maintain public support for funding from Congress while also raising large sums of money to fund programs. It's also a large institution with 6,000 employees, about 30 million visitors and research sites spread around the world.
Smithsonian officials highlighted Skorton's support for industry-university partnerships and fundraising skills, noting that he has raised more than $5 billion during his time at Cornell and completed a billion-dollar campaign at University of Iowa, a first in the state.
"David Skorton has demonstrated keen vision and skilled leadership as the president of two great American universities," Supreme Court Chief Justice and Smithsonian Chancellor John Roberts said in a statement. "His character, experience and talents are an ideal match for the Smithsonian's broad and dynamic range of interests, endeavors and aspirations."
Clough, who was previously president of the Georgia Institute of Technology for 14 years, had strong support from the Smithsonian board, and several members have said they wished he would stay longer. He joined the Smithsonian after years of controversy over his predecessor's spending and management. Clough's tenure has been marked by an initiative to digitize artifacts and broaden the Smithsonian's reach online.
Clough also drew accusations of censorship in 2010 when he ordered a video installation depicting ants crawling on a crucifix to be pulled out of the first major exhibit on gay themes in art history. Conservative critics complained about the video, and it drew threats over the Smithsonian's funding from Republican leaders in Congress.