Burke, the former Michigan star and the ninth overall pick in last year's draft, received one first-place vote, 13 second-place votes and 52 third-place votes for the award.
Carter-Williams ran away with the honors after leading all rookies in scoring (16.7 ppg), rebounding (6.2 rpg), assists (6.3 apg) and steals (1.86 spg).
Carter-Williams led the voting with 569 total points, including 104 of the 124 possible first-place votes. Oladipo received 16 first-place votes and 364 total points. Burke received 96 points, including a first-place vote from Jazz analyst Ron Boone.
Brooklyn's Mason Plumlee, New York's Tim Hardaway Jr., Oklahoma City's Steven Adams, Memphis' Nick Calathes, Milwaukee's Giannis Antetokounmpo and Minnesota's Gorgui Dieng also received votes.
Raptors' Casey gets extension
Dwane Casey started the season in the perilous position of working for a new general manager and coaching a young Toronto Raptors roster that was widely believed to be on the ground floor of a remodel.
He turned the situation into an Atlantic Division championship and the team's first playoff appearance since 2008, which was more than enough to convince general manager Masai Ujiri that the right man for the job was already in house.
Casey received a three-year contract extension on Monday, a person with knowledge of the deal told The Associated Press. The person requested anonymity because the team has not announced the move.
The agreement came a day after the Raptors lost Game 7 of their Eastern Conference playoff series to Brooklyn when Nets star Paul Pierce blocked a potential game-winning shot by Toronto point guard Kyle Lowry in the closing seconds. The fast resolution addressed one of the team's biggest question marks heading into the offseason.
"He's a great dude," guard DeMar DeRozan said of Casey before news of the contract went public. "Sometimes you don't even look at him as a coach because you can talk to him about any situation. I think that helped us a lot."
LeBron: Durant would be a deserving MVP
LeBron James of the Miami Heat says Oklahoma City's Kevin Durant would be a deserving winner of the NBA MVP award.
It's expected that Durant will be announced as this season's MVP later this week. James has lauded Durant's play this season several times in recent weeks, doing so again on Monday.
James says: "Much respect to him and he deserves it. He had a big-time MVP season."
James is a four-time winner of the league's MVP award, taking the honor in each of the previous two seasons.