Utah tops U.S. in giving to charity, study says
Philanthropy • Less-religious states give less, study shows.
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Boston • Mormon-dominated Utah leads the nation in charitable giving, thanks largely to LDS emphasis on tithing.

In fact, a new study on the generosity of Americans suggests that states with the least-religious residents are also the stingiest about donating to charity.

The study released Monday by the Chronicle of Philanthropy found that residents in states where religious participation is higher than the rest of the nation gave the greatest percentage of their discretionary income to charity.

A Gallup poll earlier this year ranked Utah as the second-most-religious state, behind Mississippi, and a religion census pegged the Salt Lake City area — headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — as the nation's most-religious metropolis.

Mormons are taught to pay 10 percent of their income to the faith. To enter LDS temples and participate in Mormonism's most sacred rites, members must meet this tithing requirement.

"Any LDS member who is faithful does that," said Valerie Mason, 70, of Mesa, Ariz., during an interview in Salt Lake City. "Some struggle with it. Some leave the church because of it. But we believe in the blessing. ... Tithing does bring the blessing of God's promise."

The most generous state, according to the latest study, was Utah, where residents gave 10.6 percent of their discretionary income to charity, followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and South Carolina.

The least generous was New Hampshire, at 2.5 percent, followed by Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

Churches are among the organizations counted as charities by the study, and some states in the Northeast rank in the top 10 when religious giving is not counted.

The study also found that patterns of charitable giving are colored in political reds and blues.

Of the 10 least generous states, nine voted for Democrat Barack Obama for president in the last election. By contrast, of the 10 most generous states, eight voted for Republican John McCain.

But Peter Panepento, the Chronicle's assistant managing editor, said that political breakdown likely speaks to a state's religious makeup, not its prevailing political views. He noted the lowest-ranked Democrat states were also among the least religious, while the top-ranked Republican states were among the more religious.

"I don't know if I could go out and say it's a complete Republican-Democrat difference as much as it is different religious attitudes and culture in these states," he said.

The study was based on Internal Revenue Service records of people who itemized deductions in 2008, the most recent year statistics were available.

By focusing on the percentage given to charity from discretionary income — the money left over after necessities are paid for — the study aimed to remove variables such as the differing costs of living around the country, Panepento said. The data allowed researchers to detail charitable giving down to the ZIP code.

In Boston, semi-retired carpenter Stephen Cremins said the traditional New England ideal of self-sufficiency might explain the lower giving, particularly during tight times when people have less to spare.

"Charity begins at home," Cremins said. "I'm a big believer of that, you know, you have to take care of yourself before you can help others."

The study found that in the Northeast — including New England, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York — people gave 4.1 percent of their discretionary income to charity. The percentage was 5.2 percent in the South, a region from Texas east to Delaware and Florida, and including most of the so-called Bible Belt.

Alan Wolfe, a political science professor at Boston College, said it's wrong to link a state's religious makeup with its generosity. People in less religious states are giving in a different way by being more willing to pay higher taxes so the government can equitably distribute superior benefits, Wolfe said. And the distribution is based purely on need, rather than religious affiliation or other variables, said Wolfe, also head of the college's Boisi Center for Religion and Public Life.

Wolfe said people in less-religious states "view the tax money they're paying not as something that's forced upon them, but as a recognition that they belong with everyone else, that they're citizens in the common good. ... I think people here believe that when they pay their taxes, they're being altruistic."

When only secular gifts are counted, New York climbs from No. 18 to No. 2 in giving, and Pennsylvania rises from No. 40 to No. 4.

The Salt Lake Tribune contributed to this report. —

Among other findings:

• People who earn $200,000 per year give a greater percentage to charity when they live in ZIP codes with fewer people who are as wealthy as they are.

• People who earn between $50,000 and $75,000 annually give a higher percentage of their income to charity (7.6 percent) than those who make $100,000 or more (4.2 percent).