In "Enviro ignorance" (Forum, April 30), Ray Ridge made clear his ignorance of the oil shale, tar sands and fracking issues.
He seems totally ignorant that no fossil fuel is "carbon neutral." Natural gas emits less carbon dioxide, but the fracking process to extract it from the Earth emits methane, negating any reduction in CO2.
Ridge's comment on who is "upwind" versus "downwind" of oil shale processing is ridiculous. What matters is who is downstream.
Regardless of what Ridge asserts, oil shale, tar sands and fracking all use large amounts of water, and the Western United States simply does not have the water.