This is an archived article that was published on sltrib.com in 2011, and information in the article may be outdated. It is provided only for personal research purposes and may not be reprinted.
Motorists are paying nearly $4 for a gallon of gasoline as the oil industry reaps pre-tax profits that could hit $200 billion this year.
This makes another big number hard to take, $4.4 billion. That's how much the industry saves every year through special tax breaks intended to promote domestic drilling.
President Barack Obama is increasing pressure on Congress to eliminate these tax breaks including one that is nearly a century old at a time of record budget deficits. The president and congressional Democrats say eliminating the tax breaks would also lower gas prices by making alternative energy sources more competitive.
Oil industry advocates, a group that includes most Republicans in Congress, argue just the opposite. They say oil companies reinvest tax breaks into exploration and production, which ultimately generates more tax dollars and increases the supply of oil. They say eliminating tax breaks would raise the cost of doing business, threaten jobs and lead to higher gas prices.
Executives of the five biggest oil companies were asked about these tax breaks at a Senate finance committee meeting Thursday. Senate Democrats accused the oil companies of not paying their share to help the country emerge from economic hard times. Republicans derided the hearing as a dog-and-pony show staged to score political points with angry drivers.
The industry executives said eliminating the tax breaks would reduce investment in the U.S. Exxon Mobil CEO Rex Tillerson said the tax proposal "would discourage future investment in energy projects in the United States and therefore undercut job creation and economic growth." He said it would do nothing to reduce gasoline prices.
The 41 U.S. oil and gas companies that break out their federal taxes said they paid Uncle Sam $5.7 billion in 2010, according to data compiled by Compustat. That's more than any other industry. Exxon alone paid $1.3 billion. (The company's total tax bill was $21.5 billion, but most of that was paid to foreign governments and states.)
But at a time when motorists are fuming about $4 gas, Obama and Democrats see a huge political opportunity.
"When you see profits that include the word billions, people automatically think someone is getting screwed," said Christine Tezak, senior energy and environmental policy analyst at Robert W. Baird & Co. "The fact that the (oil industry) is getting any breaks at all has become a sore spot."
The price of oil is so high that removing these tax breaks would likely have little to no effect on domestic oil production. There are other factors that make the U.S. a highly attractive place to drill. It's politically stable, it has good roads and pipelines, and it's the world's biggest energy consumer. And the industry would remain hugely profitable, even though eliminating the tax breaks would increase its U.S. tax bill by nearly 70 percent.
The tax breaks that Obama wants to eliminate would cost the U.S. Treasury $44 billion over the next decade. A Senate proposal targets many of the same rules, but would eliminate them only for the five biggest oil companies, ExxonMobil, Chevron, BP, Royal Dutch Shell and ConocoPhillips.
Here is a look at the main tax breaks:
• The biggest is what's called the Domestic Manufacturing Deduction. It's a 2004 tax change meant to encourage companies to manufacture in the U.S.
It allows companies of almost any type to deduct from their taxable income up to 9 percent of profits from domestic manufacturing. Under the rule, oil and gas companies were classified as manufacturers, but their deduction was capped at 6 percent.
• Another subsidy, established in 1913 to encourage domestic drilling, allows oil companies to deduct more quickly all of the so-called intangible costs of preparing a site for drilling.
To accountants, intangible costs are costs for things that have no salvage value when the well runs dry, including clearing land and pouring concrete. Ordinarily, a business would have to deduct these costs over the life of the drilling site. Instead, small, independent drillers are allowed to deduct all of these expenses in the first year; major, so-called integrated companies such as ExxonMobil can deduct 70 percent in the first year.
The industry says it's a research and development write-off . Tax experts say this is clearly a subsidy.
• Royalties that companies pay foreign governments for the oil they extract are not deductible from U.S taxes. But often the industry is allowed to claim royalties as foreign taxes, which are deductible. Obama and Senate Democrats call this a loophole, and want to close it. Obama doesn't include this in his $44 billion proposal, but Whitney Stanco, an analyst at MF Global, calculates that removing this benefit could cost the industry $8.5 billion over 10 years.