From New York to Utah and across denominations, religious leaders have used their positions from the pulpit in an effort to influence legislation or rally church members in protest.
For example, faith leaders joined civic and political officials in the Beehive State last year in signing the Utah Compact. The document, endorsed by the state's predominant faith, the LDS Church, was designed to reduce angry rhetoric and emphasize empathy and economic contributions made by undocumented workers.
Earlier this year, more than 20 religious leaders and officials with church-operated charities in Alabama spoke out against a stringent new anti-immigration law that they said would block them from providing food, shelter and transportation to the poor.
Meanwhile, the Rev. Angela Herrera, an assistant minister with the First Unitarian Church of Albuquerque, helped organized her members and other religious leaders in successful rallies against an effort by New Mexico Gov. Susana Martinez to overturn a state law allowing undocumented immigrants to obtain driver licenses.
And last year, St. Leo's Catholic Church in Queens, N.Y., sent Sen. Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., testimonies from more than 230 people asking for immigration reform. It was one of many Catholic churches nationwide that pushed immigration reform.
"Immigration is a God event." said the Rev. Lorenza Andrade Smith, the United Methodist pastor who was arrested outside of the offices of Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-Texas.
Many religious leaders point to immigration stories in the Bible as personal reflections that influence their calling to push immigration reform.
Christopher C. Hope, the reach-out now director of Pentecostal Tabernacle, a church located between Harvard and MIT in Cambridge, Mass., said he often points out that Jesus and his family had to emigrate to Egypt from Israel to avoid death by King Herod, and God ordered the Israelites that "the stranger who sojourns with you shall be to you as the native among you."
There's also a practical reason for churches to embrace immigrants and immigration reform: the influx has helped revive some churches.
Bishop Brian Greene, senior pastor of Pentecostal Tabernacle, saw his church grow from less than 50 members to close to 400 in 10 years after the church began recruiting immigrant students and scholars. The sojourner is a hot topic, he said.
Hope said the church helped persuade the city of Cambridge and some Massachusetts schools and colleges to publicly support the DREAM act a stalled federal proposal that would allow undocumented immigrant students a pathway to citizenship through college and military service.
But Greene said the church has to be careful since many of his members are legal immigrants who have gone through a long process to stay in the country, and they are now living apart from their families. He doesn't want to advocate too much on one side of an issue and risk alienating some members. "It's important to listen to both sides," he said.
Still, some advocates for tougher immigration restrictions say that the views of some religious leaders may run counter to those held by members of their congregations a phenomenon witnessed among Mormons. They point to a 2009 Zogby poll that found that 64 percent of mainline Protestants support enforcement measures that encouraged undocumented immigrants to return to their native countries, while only 24 percent support conditional legalization.
Smith said that shouldn't matter.
"Just because you're in the majority doesn't make it right," said Smith, who recently shared her work among immigrants with a group of United Methodists at an Albuquerque conference. "There are laws, but there are also laws that are unjust. I'm trying to communicate the love of God. So if I see that a law is not communicating the love of God, I will speak out."
Greene said the public popularity of any political stance doesn't mean it triumphs God's word. "To me, it's about, what does the word say?"
During a recent church service at the First Unitarian Church of Albuquerque, member Kristine Olson, 59, hosted a table with books on the borderlands and collected supplies for immigrants who had recently been deported. Olson said she and other members were planning a trip to Mexico to personally give hygiene products to the immigrants who had been separated from family.
"Our way of worship," she said, "is through service."
Smith said it's important to meet church members where they are in their faith and not push too hard.
"But I am called to do this," Smith said. "And I have to be obedient to God's call."
LDS Church statement on Utah Compact
As a worldwide church dealing with many complex issues across the globe, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints promotes broad, foundational principles that have worldwide application. The church regards the declaration of the Utah Compact as a responsible approach to the urgent challenge of immigration reform. It is consistent with important principles for which we stand:
• We follow Jesus Christ by loving our neighbors. The Savior taught that the meaning of "neighbor" includes all of God's children, in all places, at all times.
• We recognize an ever-present need to strengthen families. Families are meant to be together. Forced separation of working parents from their children weakens families and damages society.
• We acknowledge that every nation has the right to enforce its laws and secure its borders. All persons subject to a nation's laws are accountable for their acts in relation to them.
Public officials should create and administer laws that reflect the best of our aspirations as a just and caring society. Such laws will properly balance love for neighbors, family cohesion, and the observance of just and enforceable laws.
Salt Lake City's Catholic bishop on immigration
From the Gospels and the encyclicals, the church has developed five principles to guide its work on immigration issues:
• People have the right to live in dignity in their own countries. Thus, the church promotes humanitarian aid in underdeveloped nations.
• People have the right to migrate to support themselves and their families. Thus, the church supports immigration reform at the national level to allow individuals and families to achieve full lives of dignity.
• Sovereign nations have the right to control their borders. The church, therefore, supports efforts to ensure that immigrants have adequate legal options for emigrating.
• Refugees and asylum seekers should be protected.
• All people deserve to be treated with dignity and respect regardless of immigration status.
Source: "Immigration Is a Moral Issue, Not Merely a Political One" by the Rev. John C. Wester