NASA is marking the anniversary with low-key ceremonies in Florida and Texas honoring the crew of Columbia as well as those who died in the Jan. 28, 1986, Challenger shuttle explosion and earlier lost astronauts.
Among those participating are some of the crew family members who were at Kennedy on Feb. 1, 2003. Lost were Commander Rick Husband, co-pilot William McCool, specialists Kalpana Chawla, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, David Brown, and Ilan Ramon, an Israeli fighter pilot.
The shuttle broke apart as it re-entered the atmosphereand streaked across the nation's skies. Parts of the shattered spacecraft rained down across a broad expanse, much of it centered over Hemphill, Texas.
Days later, Milt Heflin, then the chief flight director and now associate director of the Johnson Space Center, walked into a hangar at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana. Bright xenon lights illuminated the "busted, twisted, scorched hardware." It was, he recalls, "a morgue of high-speed technology."
The disaster was attributed to a a piece of foam that fell from the external rocket tank on launch, opening a hole in a shuttle wing that caused the craft to rip apart on re-entry.
The accident investigation spread blame broadly, citing management and organizational deficiencies. Among them: a culture that didn't like to hear safety concerns from lower-level engineers.
"In the 10 years since the Columbia investigation, the accident report has become a landmark study in organizational causes of accidents," Hale says. "That's the enduring legacy. We learned ... cultural and management lessons."
The shuttle fleet was grounded and although missions resumed in 2005, President George W. Bush decided to wind down the shuttle program. The last shuttle flew in 2011, and the remaining shuttles have become museum pieces.