The Yankees also signed infielder Brent Lillibridge from Triple-A Scranton/Wilkes-Barre.
The 39-year-old Jeter singled on his first pitch in a major league game this year as the Yankees beat Kansas City on July 11, but he left in the eighth inning when his quad tightened in his third at-bat.
At the time, Jeter said he hoped the strain was "not a big deal."
He missed the weekend series against Minnesota but hoped to avoid the DL.
"It's frustrating. I don't know what else you want me to say," Jeter said in a statement a day after the injury.
"I worked hard to get to the point of rejoining the team yesterday. It's not how you draw it up, but hopefully I'll be back out there soon and help this team win some games."
After just four rehabilitation games, the Yankees pushed up the star shortstop's return one day after Brett Gardner and Travis Hafner got hurt.
Jeter had been telling the team he was ready to return, and general manager Brian Cashman said reports from Triple-A Scranton/Wilkes-Barre were positive.
So Jeter came back to a huge ovation and beat out an infield hit in his first at-bat. He also scored a run and had an RBI on a groundout that ended in a close play at first. He was pinch hit for in the eighth inning.