The disclosure is just the latest in a swirl of mortgage-related lawsuits and investigations that have hammered big U.S. banks in the aftermath of the financial crisis. The banks have been accused of improperly foreclosing on homeowners, discriminating against others and knowingly making loans to people who couldn't afford them. Other probes, including the one disclosed by JPMorgan, have focused on mortgage-backed securities, where the banks bundled together their mortgages and sold them in slivers to investors.
JPMorgan didn't give details on what the Justice Department is investigating. But previous lawsuits and investigations, against both JPMorgan and other big banks, have said that the banks misled investors about the quality of the loans they were buying. When the real estate bubble burst, many of the mortgage-backed securities soured and the investors who bought them lost billions.
If the investigations result in criminal or civil action by the Justice Department against JPMorgan, it would be the most high-profile government move against the bank to date. JPMorgan, which came through the financial crisis stronger than most of its competitors and was lauded for wise risk management practices, has lately faced a slew of sanctions by federal regulators.
In January, regulators ordered the bank to take steps to correct poor risk management that led to a surprise trading loss last year of more than $6 billion. The Federal Reserve and the U.S. Comptroller of the Currency also cited JPMorgan for lapses in oversight that could allow the bank to be used for money laundering. Last month, the bank agreed to settle allegations by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that it manipulated electricity prices in California and the Midwest.
This is not JPMorgan's first legal headache over mortgage-backed securities. It has settled charges from the Securities and Exchange Commission over mortgage-backed investments it made in the run-up to the financial crisis. It's also facing lawsuits from the New York Attorney General's Office and the National Credit Union Administration over the securities.
JPMorgan is fighting the attorney general's lawsuit, which focused on investments sold by Bear Stearns in 2006 and 2007. JPMorgan bought Bear Stearns in 2008.
JPMorgan made the disclosure about the Justice Department investigations in a quarterly regulatory filing late Wednesday. It came a day after the U.S. government accused Bank of America of civil fraud, saying the company failed to disclose risks and misled investors in its sale of $850 million of mortgage bonds during 2008. The government says that the bank failed to tell investors that more than 70 percent of the mortgages backing the investment were written by mortgage brokers outside the banks' network.
Bank of America has disputed those allegations, saying the investors who bought the securities had "ample access" to data about the mortgages.
"We are not responsible for the housing market collapse that caused mortgage loans to default at unprecedented rates and these securities to lose value as a result," the bank said in a statement this week.
Shares of JPMorgan Chase & Co. slipped 38 cents, or 0.7 percent, to $54.92 in Thursday afternoon trading. The stock closed Wednesday at $55.30, up 26 percent since the start of the year.
AP Business Writer Marcy Gordon in Washington contributed to this report.