Income rose 0.5 percent in March after rising 0.4 percent in February.
Higher spending points to stronger growth ahead because consumer activity accounts for roughly 70 percent of the economy. During last quarter as a whole, harsh winter weather curbed spending, and the economy barely grew at an annual rate of just 0.1 percent.
But Thursday's report suggested that last quarter's slowdown was confined mainly to January and February, before consumers stepped up spending in March.
For last quarter overall, consumer spending did grow at a 3 percent annual rate. But that gain was dominated by a 4.4 percent rise in spending on services, reflecting in part higher utility bills during the unusually cold winter.
Economists say warmer weather likely encouraged people to make purchases last month that they had delayed because of snowstorms earlier this year.
"The weather-related rebound may now have run its course," said Paul Dales, senior U.S. economist at Capital Economics.
Dales projects that consumer spending will increase at a 4.5 percent annual clip this quarter and will help the overall economy grow at a 3.5 percent annual rate over that time.
Employers added 192,000 jobs in March and 197,000 in February, after slight gains in the preceding months. The hiring should help to drive income and spending gains in March.
On Friday, the Labor Department will issue the April employment report. Economists have forecast that 210,000 jobs were added, according to the data firm FactSet.
Payroll processer ADP said Wednesday that private employers added 220,000 jobs in April, the most since November, after adding 209,000 in March.